This project is active

End Drought Emergency: Climate Proofed Infrastructure for Improved Water Supply and Sanitation in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands Areas

According to SNV's water point mapping report conducted in seven counties in 2013, almost 1/3 of constructed rural water points are dysfunctional in Kenya at any given time.

Rural water systems in Kenya are mostly managed by voluntary Water Users Associations (WUAs) that often lack the business know-how required to ensure their financial and commercial sustainability. WUAs suffer from poorly set up governance and management structures that are fairly established in urban water service providers. This is further exacerbated by a lack of reliable data and dilapidated water infrastructure. 

Traditionally, the delivery of water supply involves high capital investment and infrastructure development. Because rural and peri-urban areas are not considered commercially viable investment areas, WUAs struggle to manage and improve their rural water systems. Research has shown that poorly performing water systems in rural and peri-urban areas require technical assistance and start-up grants to make them commercially attractive to private investors. The government is now compelled to seek creative ways to ensure that the unserved and underserved populations are not left behind from water reforms and innovation.

Scope and approach

For a period of four years (January 2020 to December 2023),  SNV will implement Public-Private-Community Partnerships (PPCPs) in Baringo, Kajiado, Kitui, Kilifi, Mandera, Samburu, Taita Taveta and West Pokot counties with the aim to improve the functionality and climate resilience of their rural water systems. The project will improve the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) systems and commercial viability of selected rural water systems within the eight counties. Using our implementation experience in Kenya Market Assistance Programme the project will engage the local private sector as service contractors, managers, investors, or innovative technology providers to demonstrate improved water service delivery using private sector participation. Lastly, it will strengthen county-level capacity to monitor the performance of the counties' water systems.

This four-year project is part of the SNV programme, Area-wide Rural Water Supply Services.

Key facts



To implement innovative and sustainable PPCPs in the eight ASAL (Arid and Semi-Arid Land Areas) counties.


To improve delivery of water supply and sanitation services in all eight ASAL counties.


Our experts

David Wanyoike

WASH Sector Coordinator

Donors & Partners